Treatment of dermatitis depends upon the cause of the condition. Some of the cornerstones for treating dermatitis are avoidance of irritants, wet compresses and corticosteroid creams. Use of topical corticosteroids should be for short term only. It can be discontinued once the rash is under control, to increase effectiveness of treatment and to reduce the side effects like thinning of skin. Non-steroidal medicines are also useful in treating some types of dermatitis. Using anti-histaminic drugs that are easily available over the counter can help in reducing the itching in dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis:
Contact eczemaTreating contact dermatitis should include identification of the causative factor responsible for it, followed by the removal of the cause. Topical agents containing hydrocortisone or other stronger steroidal agents along with wet dressings over the cream can help in effective treatment of the condition.
Neurodermatitis:
The treatment objective in this condition should be to control the itching and to prevent further exacerbation of the skin condition. Various options for treating this condition are topical agents containing hydrocortisone, wet compresses along with the use of anti-anxiety or anti-depressant medications. Proper counseling of the patients is also required in some cases to help the patients to understand and prevent the emotions or behaviors that can aggravate itching and scratching. It is beneficial for the patients to cover the affected part with a dressing. This helps the patients in avoiding scratching the part.
Seborrheic dermatitis:
The first choice of treatment for treating this condition is medicated shampoos. Shampoos containing tar, salicylic acid, ketoconazole or pyrithione zinc as active ingredients are beneficial for treating this condition. Lotions or creams containing hydrocortisone can be used for the treatment of non-scalp Seborrheic dermatitis. Drugs affecting the immune system of the patient, like immuno-modulators, can be used in this condition. Anti-inflammatory and antifungal medications are particularly useful in the effective management of Seborrheic dermatitis.
However, prolonged use of immuno-modulator drugs affects the immune system and can be harmful for the normal functioning of the body. Hence, Food and Drug Administration has recommended using Elidel or Protopic only if the other modes of treatment have failed to treat the condition. These drugs can also be used if other medications cause side effects in the patients or are not tolerated well by the patients. Treatment of Seborrheic dermatitis usually involves the use of topical agents. However, use of Pixel laser can also help in reducing the levels of Malassezia on the face. Pixel laser can be used for skin resurfacing of the skin and helps in creating polished appearance over the skin.

Static Dermatitis:
Treatment of static dermatitis includes the correction of the underlying condition that is responsible for accumulation of fluids in legs and ankles, etc. for a prolonged period. Other treatment options of this condition include surgical therapy for varicose veins and wearing of elastic support hose. Use of wet dressings for softening the thickened skin that is yet fragile can help in relieving the condition. It also helps in controlling the infections.
Atopic Dermatitis:
Perioral dermatitis Treatment of atopic dermatitis should be aimed at reducing the redness and itching of the skin. Apart from this, healing the cracks in the skin that are prone to infections is also essential. Use of lotions containing hydrocortisone, along with wet dressings having mild astringent properties can be very useful. Immuno-modulator medications like Pimecrolimus or Tacrolimus can be used for effective management of this condition. Apart for this, light therapy involving exposure of skin to regularized amounts of artificial or natural light can be used for the prevention of occurrence of atopic dermatitis.
Perioral Dermatitis:
Use of strong corticosteroids for treating this condition is generally not advised by doctors. This is so because once these medications are stopped, the symptoms of the condition may reoccur, leading to a severe exacerbation of the condition. Use of oral antibiotics like tetracycline can also take many months for relief of the condition. Mild corticosteroid lotion or cream can be helpful in treating this condition.

Laser treatment for skin rejuvenation can help in reducing the fine lines and wrinkles effectively. It can help in treating the wrinkles around mouth, eyes and on cheeks. Patients can observe the age spots diminished by almost 50% after the first session of this treatment. They are completely eliminated in the next sessions. Skin resurfacing using laser therapy can drastically remove shallow scars; reduce the deep lines on face and helps in tightening of skin. Some may feel that laser treatment is a magic of sorts. But it is not. It is very necessary to have realistic expectations from any treatment. Laser skin rejuvenation is an extremely beneficial mode of therapy for skin rejuvenation, but it does not work well for all individuals.
It can help in skin tightening to a larger extent. But laser treatment can not give as efficacious results as seen after eyelid lift or surgical facelift. Wrinkles that are caused due to repetitive muscle movements, like frowning, are very difficult to remove with laser therapy alone. Use of botulinum rejuvenation along with laser therapy can give the desired results in these cases.
It is important to note that the outcome of any medical procedure depends upon the knowledge and skill level of the doctor performing the procedure. Hence, the American Academy of Dermatology has advised patients to do a thorough homework about the procedure before they begin the therapy. Also patients are advised to discuss their expectation and other available options with the board certified dermatologist prior to beginning treatment for skin rejuvenation with laser therapy.
Instructions to be followed by the patients before beginning the therapy:
Any patient with a considerably good health can be a candidate for skin rejuvenation with laser therapy. Patients should have a consultation with a dermatologist before they take a decision to undergo skin rejuvenation. Patients should inform the physician about the following things during the visit:

  • History of prolonged or unusual bleeding
  • History of blood clotting diseases
  • Tendency to develop hypertrophied scars
  • History of any cosmetic procedure done in the past like facelift, filler or eyelid lifts

Apart from this, patients suffering from infectious diseases like AIDS or hepatitis should inform the doctor about the same. Patients using Isotretinoin for treatment of acne should inform the doctor about it. This will help the dermatologist for proceeding with the treatment in a way that suits the patient best. A complete examination of skin is essential before the treatment begins. It is important to understand how deeply the age related effects have penetrated through the skin. Success of this procedure depends upon the exact assessment of the skin condition. It is also essential to gauge whether the laser treatment can help patients in diminishing the aging effects that concerns them the most. It is important that the patient is informed about the possible outcome of the treatment, side effects that may occur and the extent to which his or her expectations will be met with. Also, it is important to discuss the number of sessions required and costs involved in the procedure during the visit to the doctor.
Once the decision to undergo skin rejuvenation with laser treatment is taken, patients should take proper care of the skin so as to accentuate the results of the treatment and to avoid side effects. Patients should avoid excessive exposure to skin prior to the treatment. Skin tanning can interfere with the treatment and can also cause a few side effects. If the skin is tanned, it is advisable to wait till the tanning goes away completely before beginning the treatment. Also, the therapy should never be done on skin that is sun burnt. Compete treatment of it is required before the therapy. Patients should properly take the medications prescribed by the dermatologist during the pre-therapy period. Also, they should use the topical agents suggested by the doctor as prescribed.
Use of Laser Therapy for Skin Rejuvenation
The treatment procedure for skin rejuvenation with laser therapy depends upon the type of light therapy selected. The laser beams used depend upon the skin type of the patients. The therapy is done in a room that is set up for light or laser treatment, specifically. The skin is cleaned well for removing make-up or oil before the procedure. Giving eye protection to patients during the procedure is absolutely essential. A topical anesthesia is given to the patients. Some patients may need a photodynamic therapy before the procedure to make the skin more responsive to light. For this, a photosensitizer is applied to the skin approximately 30 minutes before the therapy. The procedure involves using a wand-like laser, which emits light. The device releases energy when it is fired. It makes the patient feel as if a rubber band is snapped against the skin.
Outcome of the Therapy
Some signs of aging like age spots, scars or spider veins can be permanently removed with this therapy. But, it is important to mention that laser therapy cannot put a stop to the aging process and the aging will continue to have its effect on the skin even after the treatment. New age spots may develop after the therapy or crow’s feet can again appear after the procedure. As exposure to sun can accelerate the aging process, protection of skin from exposure to sun can help patients in lengthening the time duration for which the results of treatment last. Also, protection from sun can help patients for preventing re-appearance of some signs of aging like dark patches and blotchy skin.
The results of the therapy depend upon the type of laser used for the same. There will not be any visible wound if a non-ablative therapy is used for the procedure. But the skin may look puffy and red in this. Such effects do not last for longer than a few hours and can be easily covered with mild make-up. This procedure does not have any downtime. However, if fractional laser is used for the treatment, there can be a downtime of 1-3 days.
The patients should follow the instructions given by the dermatologists for post-therapy skin care properly.
Improvement in the skin and disappearance of aging signs occurs gradually after the treatment. It takes several months to notice the full effects of the treatment after procedure. The number of sessions required for each person varies depending upon their skin type and severity of aging signs. However, normally patients need 3-6 sessions for complete results.
Side Effects of Laser Therapy
Laser therapies, just like other light therapies, do not have many side effects as those seen with other traditionally used skin-resurfacing therapies like dermabrasion or chemical peeling. However, some patients may develop temporary lightening or darkening of skin after the treatment that lasts for few days. Some patients also develop scarring of skin following the treatment. There may be some swelling of the skin after the procedure that can be reduced by application of ice packs.
Patients can get the best and most efficacious results for skin rejuvenation with laser therapy, which can help them to have a youthful and tightened skin.

Alternatives for Hair Restoration to Fight Baldness

Baldness is a term used for describing loss of hair, mainly from the scalp. The hair loss can be complete or partial. Several alternatives for restoration of hair are available to patients suffering from baldness.
Balding or hair loss can be seen in males as well as in females. Patients suffering from baldness usually suffer from low self esteem. Few decades back, baldness was more common among old people, but today more and more number of young people are suffering from this due to changes in lifestyle. It is estimated that Approximately 35 million males and 21 million females suffer from this condition in United States alone.

Baldness can be of different types depending upon the causative factors, gender of a person and the part involved in hair fall. The different types of baldness are male patternbaldness or female baldness, alopecia areata, scaring alopecia, toxic alopecia and frontal balding. The factors causing baldness include chronic illnesses, aging, genetics, environmental factors, faulty or unhealthy lifestyle and some medications. Tumors of brain, fungal infections and hormonal changes can also be responsible for baldness. Several modes of treatment are available to manage this condition effectively.

Natural Therapies:
Few natural or herbal medications can be very beneficial for fighting baldness. Berry of Saw Palmetto, a herb; contains high level of nutrients, which can help in fighting against DHT, a hormone responsible for baldness. This herb also contains high levels of fatty acids and phytosterols that help in blocking the action of an enzyme called 5-alpha reductase. Thus, the herb can help in treating baldness effectively. Apart from this, a diet rich in minerals and vitamins is also helpful in treating hair loss. Zinc can boost the immune system of a person and hence can be very beneficial for treating baldness. Some fatty acids such as primrose oil, salmon oil and flaxseed oil are helpful in improving the texture of hair and can treat brittleness and dryness of hair.
Oral Medications:
Some medicines are very effective in fighting baldness. Rogaine and Propecia are medicines that help in slowing down male type baldness and in re-growth of hair. However, if patients stop taking these drugs, hair fall can return; hence, patients need to take these medicines regularly as long as they wish to get rid of hair loss. These drugs are approved by FDA. Finasteride is a very efficient drug for treating hair loss in both men and women.
Electromagnetic Treatment:
Electromagnetic stimulators can help in hair re-growth by exciting the hormones responsible for growth of new hair. The treatment involves injecting tiny acupuncture like needles in bald areas of scalp. Then the device is activated and mild electromagnetic pulses are passed through scalp. Over a period of time, the growth hormones for hair are activated, causing growth of new air.
Lasers:
Low Level Laser Therapy or LLLT can be very beneficial for reducing hair loss and stimulating hair re-growth. It boosts the flow of blood to scalp tissue and leads to stimulation of natural processes under skin. It also causes acceleration of hormones responsible for hair growth. Thus, patients can observe thicker hair after the treatment with LLLT. The therapy can cost approximately US$ 4500. Patients can also use a device called laser comb that is approved by FDA for treating hair loss. This device administers phototherapy to scalp, causing re-growth of hair. The prices of these devices range between $395 and $545.

Hair Transplantation:
It includes redistribution of hair follicles from hairy parts of the body to the bald parts. The therapies available for hair transplantation are Follicular Unit Transplantation, Scalp Reduction and Follicular Unit Extraction.

  • Follicular Unit Transplantation or FUT: In this technique, a strip of scalp tissue is peeled off from back portion of head followed by suturing of the wound. Then, this portion of scalp tissues is divided in small pieces of grafts. After this, these graft tissues are transplanted on the areas having thinning of hair. The therapy is done under local anesthesia. This therapy needs a recovery period of 2 weeks and the cost of this procedure is $4 – 5 for each graft.
  • Scalp Reduction: In this technique, the skin over bald parts of scalp is removed. Then the skin of the scalp bearing hair is pulled over these bald spots. This procedure is difficult to be performed over scalps having tight skin as it becomes difficult to stretch the skin over bald areas in these patients. This procedure can be effectively used for treating small patches of baldness. The therapy costs approximately $2000-$10,000 depending upon the size of bald areas.
  • Follicular Unit Extraction: In this procedure, hair follicles are detached from the sides and back of scalp individually, using tiny punches having size of 0.6-1.25 mm diameter. This procedure is done under local anesthesia. Then, with the help of micro-blades, each follicle is pushed in the areas of scalp having thinning of hair. The small holes in donor part are filled up in a week after the procedure, leaving behind small scars that are visible on close inspection only. The procedure costs $6 – 10 for each graft.

Products for Hair Restoration:
Several products are available in market for restoration of hair. Patients are advised to buy those products that contain saw, pro-vitamin B-5 and palmetto-zinc as these ingredients can be very helpful in preventing hair fall and in re-growth of new hair.

With the ever growing popularity for tattoos comes the need for tattoo removal. The market today, is flooded with numerous procedures for tattoo removal. One such procedure which is widely used by many people is the laser procedure for tattoo removal. This particular tattoo removal treatment has proved itself to be the gold standard for tattoo removal and has significantly replaced many other procedures. Laser technology for tattoo removal functions by targeting the tattoo with the use of highly concentrated light rays, which penetrate the surface of the skin in order to eradicate the tattoo.
Presently, there are 3 different types of laser which are utilized for tattoo removal. Which laser needs to be put to use will actually depend on factors like the color of tattoo ink and also the patients skin tone. The effectiveness of the laser procedure for tattoo removal also depends upon factors such as, pigments used as well as the capacity of the patient’s immune system, to absorb and then rid itself of the destroyed fragments of ink.
Types of lasers for tattoo removal are as follows:

1 – The first type of laser for tattoo removal is the Q-switched Ruby. This particular laser functions more effectively on green and sky blue colored tattoos. The Q-switched Ruby is not easy to use on dark skin.

2 – The next type of laser is the Q-switched Alexandrate. This laser is utilized for removing green, black and blue colored tattoo ink.

3 – The last and more advanced laser for tattoo removal is the Q-switched ND YAG. This particular laser is more advanced than the other 2 lasers and helps in removing blue, red and black color ink. Due to the fact that this laser does not absorb melatonin from the skin, it is best suited for people who have a darker skin tone.
There are various types of lasers utilized in different aesthetic procedures as well as for tattoo removal. These lasers vary in pulse duration, wavelength and energy levels. Some types of lasers are capable of providing varied wavelengths and spot size. It is very important to have varied pulse durations as well as wavelengths. The different colored tattoo inks absorb light far better at a certain wavelength and the lasers which use shorter pulses tend to be a lot safer as well as effective.

How does the laser treatment for tattoo removal work?

Laser treatment for tattoo removal targets the tattoo area by making use of pulses of laser energy at a precise wavelength. The ink in the tattoo is broken into small sized fragments, which can be removed from the body by the immune system. Normally, it requires anywhere between five to fifteen treatment sessions before a tattoo completely fades out. The number of treatment sessions required for this will depend upon the location of the tattoo, color of ink used and the size of the tattoo. Treatment sessions should be spread across 6 to 8 weeks since this is the actual time which is needed for the body to completely eradicate the ink fragments. Each tattoo removal session is around 10 to 30 minutes. Following the procedure an antibiotic cream as well as a sterile dressing would be placed over the tattoo.
A newly done tattoo is not easy to get rid of in comparison to an older tattoo. An older tattoo holds a lesser amount of ink as compared to a new one. Tattoos made using red, white or skin colored ink are also difficult to eradicate. Such colors could possibly turn black following the laser treatment. A turquoise colored tattoo is considered to be extremely difficult to get rid of, especially since there are no lasers available that are able to effectively break down turquoise colored ink.

Does laser removal cause any discomfort?
Laser tattoo removal can cause a certain amount of discomfort. Many people who have used the treatment describe the feeling to be similar to getting pricked by a needle and even getting snapped by a rubber band. This feeling of discomfort is due to the pulses from the laser. Normally, it requires around 10 to 30 pulses in a single treatment.

To reduce the pain or discomfort, use ice along with some local anesthetic cream on the tattoo area. Patients can also take Tylenol some hours prior to the procedure. Avoid the use of medications like aspirin since they could lead to skin discoloration. In an exceptional case the surgeon might even inject a local anesthetic into the tattoo before beginning the laser treatment.

It is always better to speak to a surgeon before the procedure so that, you are aware of the procedure and side effects if any. After the laser treatment for tattoo removal, you will experience redness on the skin and feel similar to sunburn. There is also a possibility of bruising following the treatment. The sunburn sensation usually disappears after a few hours. However, it is important to ensure that the treated area doesn’t get wet.
How much will it cost?
A laser tattoo removal procedure is quite costly. The cost per session would depend upon the size of your tattoo and the color of ink. Normally it requires 3 to 10 sessions. The number of sessions required would depend upon the shade and composition of the ink, the depth of the tattoo, and your skin tone. Thus, the total cost might vary from a couple of hundreds for a small superficial tattoo to thousands for a large colorful tattoo.

What are the possible side effects?
Laser treatment does have a few side-effects. Mentioned below are some side effects of laser treatment for tattoo removal.
Some side effects of laser treatment are:
1. Hyperpigmentation – wherein the skin turns darker
2. Hypo pigmentation – wherein the skin turns lighter
3. Partial tattoo removal and discoloration of skin
4. There can also be a slight possibility of scaring and infection
5. An allergic reaction due to the ink released from the tattoo.

Treating Fine Lines and Wrinkles with Active FX
In today’s times, the image conscious population is on the rise. A larger number of individuals are in search of treatment procedures to minimize or eradicate photo damaged skin as well as the negative effects caused due to pollution and present day lifestyles. These factors cause the skin to look older and unattractive, which in turn causes people to feel unhappy about their looks and even embarrassed at times. Ageing is a normal process and there is not much anyone can do about it. However, apart from letting yourself age gracefully, you can opt for procedures that can help you to continue to look younger for a longer period of time. With ageing, exposure to sun, lifestyle aspects like unhealthy eating habits, smoking, alcohol consumption and heredity might also play important roles in causing facial wrinkling. Fortunately, there are quite a few treatment procedures available to meet the aesthetic needs of patients. Now we have the Gold Standard of laser resurfacing and its broadened utility to the new age non-ablative skin treatments using the intense pulsed light and the complementary finishing achieved with the Microdermabrasion techniques.
One such treatment procedure gaining popularity in recent times is the Active FX laser treatment for fine lines, wrinkles and scars. The best feature of using the Active FX laser treatment is that, there is no need to spend on any topical lotions and creams or any over the counter medications promising miraculous results within days or weeks. The Active FX treatment is quick, reliable and offers visible results that are long lasting.

More about Active FX Laser Resurfacing Treatment
Active FX is a fractional laser resurfacing procedure which is performed in a single treatment with minimum patient downtime. The procedure involves a high energy beam of laser light which is used to even out wrinkles, fines lines and scars, eliminate brown spots and other skin irregularities. It furthermore stimulates the formation of new underlying collagen in order to continue improvement over time. Using the fractional laser treatment, only a portion of the skin’s surface is treated with the laser, leaving out small bridges of untreated skin. This procedure enables a quicker healing process and allows the patient to recover and get back to their normal routines. The Active FX laser treatment results are long term and with proper sun protection, can even last for several years.
Most of the treatment effects become visible immediately, while other effects like new collagen formation builds up gradually and becomes more evident over a period of time. Consequently, most individuals look even better following 3 to 6 months of the procedure.
How the Active FX Laser Resurfacing Treatment Works?
The UltraPulse fractional laser, which is the gold standard of laser resurfacing systems, delivers thousands of minute laser pulses in a pattern over the skin. Each of these pulses heats a column of tissue while eliminating pigment discolorations on the surface of the skin and creating a zone of deep heating in the tissues. These zones of heating in turn shrink collagen instantly. The CO2 laser also allows heating deeper layers of skin tissue, in turn stimulating the collagen remodeling of the skin. The Active FX treatment works wonders in smoothening out fine lines and wrinkles.
Wondering if the Active FX treatment is Right for you?
Well, the Active FX laser resurfacing treatment for fine lines and wrinkles is ideal for you if:

  • You live an extremely busy lifestyle and cannot afford to stay away from work for long durations.
  • You want visible results with minimum downtime.
  • You want to treat fine lines, wrinkles, dyschromia, and skin laxity as well as lessen the appearance of deep lines, scars, and folds.

An Overview of the Benefits of the Active FX Treatment
Active FX laser resurfacing leads to fantastic effects on the skin:

  • Active FX reduces fine lines and wrinkles as well as softens deep frown lines.
  • Active FX treatment causes instant collagen contraction.
  • Active FX improves the skin tone and texture. It restores a healthy and younger looking skin.
  • Active FX stimulates the formation of new collagen and smoothens out the skin.
  • Treatment is quick and offers minimal pain or side effects.

Skin tags are benign flaps of skin. They are protruding growths of the skin and are attached to the skin by a thin skin stalk or a small peduncle. Skin tags are also called cutaneous skin tags or Acrochoedons. Skin tags are usually flesh colored. Some skin tags can have darker pigmentation. The size of the skin tags is usually not more than 5 mm.
Although occurrence of skin tags is more common in people of older age, they can occur in all individuals, and at any age. They are formed over any region in the body, but their appearance is more common under groins, armpits and on face. Skin tags are also common on eyelids, chest and neck. Skin tags do not produce any symptoms and are harmless. However, some tags can be very irritating if they rub against other parts of the body or against clothes. Most of the people desire to undergo treatment for skin tags for cosmetic reasons. Although it does not cause any medical symptoms, it can be a concern for patients from a cosmetic point of view. They can make people feel conscious about their appearance, especially if the skin tags are larger in size and are located at parts that are visible and prominent. Skin tags on face can be very embarrassing for patients and can also lead to social withdrawal. It can have negative impact on the emotional well being of a person.

The exact cause of formation of skin tags is not known. However, some theories have attempted to find the cause of skin tags. Many theories have pointed out that skin tags occur due to genetic reasons. It has also been observed that the occurrence of skin tags is more common among overweight people. Hence, obesity has been regarded as one of the causative factors for skin tags. Role of hormones in formation of skin tags is also important. Some hormones can be responsible for skin tags. Especially hormones activated during pregnancy are suspected to be responsible for it. Fluctuation in the level of different hormones in pregnancy can cause skin tags.
Regardless of the cause of skin tags, they can be completely benign and do not produce any complications. Even though these skin tags do not produce any pain, discomfort or any other symptoms, several patients opt for different types of treatment for removal the skin tags. It is up to the patients to decide whether he or she wants to take treatment for it or they can accept the skin tags and continue to live with it. .
Several options are available for patients who want to get the skin tags removed. Surgical removal of tags is the option preferred by many. Though the cost involved in surgical removal of skin tags is high compared to other modes of treatment, it can give instant results. Also, the procedure can be performed at any place. There is no need of an operation theater or large facilities for performing this procedure. Surgical removal of skin tags is a simple procedure. It can be done by the doctor or by the patient himself. In this, the base of the skin tags is tied with a string or dental floss. This causes occlusion of blood vessels, resulting in lack of blood supply to the part. Later, the tag is clipped off with scissors. Patients can also freeze off the tags with the help of liquid nitrogen. Occlusion of blood vessels before cutting off or freezing the tags eliminates chances of bleeding after the procedure. The results of the procedure are immediate. Patients may just suffer from mild pain after the therapy, which lasts for few hours.
Some home remedies can also be helpful for removal of skin tags. Patients can also opt for laser cosmetic surgery for removal of skin tags. Laser beams targeted at the skin tags help in destroying them. In this procedure also, the results are seen immediately after the procedure and patient suffers from mild pain after the therapy.

Treatment of skin tags is much easier than the patients may think. However, taking a decision to get the skin tags removed or not, itself is a big question. Patients should know that skin tags will not be harmful for their medical health and all they can cause is a bit of irritation, that too, if they rub against other parts of the body or clothes. Hence, treatment of it is advised only if they are irritating or are cosmetically disapproving. Patients can check through various treatment options available for skin tags before making a decision.

Cysts are sack like structures containing gas, fluid or semisolid material. It is an abnormal growth and can be easily differentiated from the surrounding normal tissues. Occurrence of cysts is very common in people of all ages. It can occur in any part of the body. Cysts can be of different sizes, varying from very small that are visible only when inspected under microscope, to as large as able to displace normal tissues and organs. The cysts are closed structures and are covered by an outer wall, called capsule.
Causative Factors of Cysts:
Cysts can occur as a result of different body processes like obstruction to flow of any fluid or simple wear and tear. It can also occur due to infections, tumors or chronic inflammatory conditions. Some cysts are genetically linked or are caused by defects in congenital development. The cysts can be prevented if the above mentioned underlying causative factors are avoided.
Signs and Symptoms of Cysts:
Sometimes the cysts are easily noticeable by patients and feel like abnormal lumps. Cysts in breasts or mammary glands can be felt during routine examination of breasts. However, cysts in internal organs like those in liver or kidneys are not easily palpable and are not noticed by the patients themselves. They may not even produce any symptoms in the initial period. These cysts are usually detected in routine imaging tests like ultrasound, X-ray or MRI. The symptoms of the cysts depend upon their location and size.
Types of Cysts:
There are more than 100 types of cysts that can occur anywhere in body. Some well known types of cysts are described below:
Cysts formed in breast can be a part of benign proliferative or fibrocystic disease of breasts. Ovarian cysts occur in some specific types of ovarian tumors. In these conditions, the ovarian tumors contain cysts and other abnormal tissues. Dermoid cysts can also occur in ovaries.
Cysts in thyroid glands are as common as baker cysts occurring behind the knees. Baker cysts occur in popliteal fossa behind the knees. Ganglion cysts are common in tendons and joints. Chalazions are cysts occurring in the glands of eyelids. Cysts occurring just below skin surface are called sebaceous cysts. Some other cysts occurring on skin are epidermal cysts also called epidermal inclusion cysts. These are commonly found on scalp, trunk, neck and face. Patients may also suffer from cysts over skin and these are caused by abscesses or boils over skin. Infection and inflammation of skin can lead to cysts on skin.
Enlargement of tiny glands near vaginal opening are called Bartholin cysts. Cysts occurring in pineal glands in brain are called pineal cysts. Polycystic kidney disorder is a common kidney conditions that is hereditarily transmitted. The kidneys in this condition contain multiple cysts. Pancreatic cysts are formed due to abnormal collection of fluid within the pancreatic tissue. Few pancreatic cysts are true cysts and are lined by cells secreting fluid. Some pancreatic cysts are false cysts or pseudocysts that do not have a lining of cells secreting fluid.
Cysts in meningeal tissue, also called Tarlov cysts are very rare. There can also be occurrence of cysts in perineural space in sacrum. Arachnoid cysts are cysts situated between the spinal cord or brain and the arachnoid matter. Arachnoid matter is a membrane covering the spinal cord and brain.

It is important to note that most of the above mentioned cysts are harmless. However, some cysts may cause discomfort, pain and pressure symptoms due to their location and size. Some cysts are associated with infections and malignancy. Patients suffering from cysts in any part of the body should consult a physician to rule out these possibilities. Appropriate diagnostic tests can be preformed for detection of the causes of cysts.

Treatment of Cysts:
An effective treatment of cysts depends upon their location and cause. Cysts, which are very large in size and causing pressure symptoms or pain, need to be removed surgically. In some cases, removal of fluid in cysts can also be performed. This can be done by draining or aspirating the fluid matter by insertion of a catheter or needle in the cysts. This causes collapse of cysts. Radio-imaging techniques can be used for guidance of the instrument through the part for accurate drainage of fluid. This can be useful especially in cysts that are not easily accessible. Patients should avoid performing drainage of cysts at home.
Few patients need surgical removal of cysts along with their walls. Cysts that may be cancerous need to be removed surgically. Biopsy of the tissue is taken and tested to rule out malignancy in these cases. Cysts can also be marsupilized by using scanning Carbon Dioxide lasers. This should be done under local anesthesia. This procedure helps in avoiding post-operative complications like the formation of lineal scar. If the cysts are formed due to chronic medical disorders like fibrocystic breast disease or polycystic ovarian syndrome, the treatment should be aimed at removing the underlying cause.

Leucoderma, commonly known as vitiligo, is an agonizing skin disease. The word actually means white skin. There is a steady loss in the pigment melanin within the skin layers which leads to white colored patches. These patches look unpleasant, particularly in individuals who have a darker complexion. The disease does not result in any organic damage. This disease is not caused due to any kind of bacteria, or due to unhealthy blood. It is not regarded as infectious or contagious.

Leucoderma Symptoms:

This condition generally begins with a small white-colored spot, which eventually develops into patches. The patches are usually pale at first, but grow to be whiter over the years as a result of loss of pigment. As the spots grow, they mix with one another and, during course of time, form an extremely wide patch. In certain cases, the majority of the skin on the body could be covered with white patches.

Leucoderma Causes:

Leucoderma could be caused due to an accidental cut, burn or perhaps an ulcer. The melanocytes cells (that produce melanin pigment) end up becoming dormant or inactive. Because of this dormancy or inactivity the pigmentation eventually disappears from the layers of the skin and results in white patches.

However the reason for vitiligo could be inappropriate hygiene, incorrect food combinations, regular intake of junk food, intake of vegetables treated with insecticides or pesticides, history of jaundice or typhoid fever, use of harsh antibiotics and so on. An important cause for vitiligo could be unexpected emotional trauma and stress. Due to the many reasons mentioned, there is a formation of toxins within the body, which disturbs the immune system and in turn reaches a condition of autoimmunity (an ailment in which the immune system destroys its own tissues and cells). Autoimmunity is the main reason for vitiligo according to Ayurveda and even Allopathy.
The primary factors behind leucoderma are extreme mental stress, chronic or severe gastric disorders, reduced hepatic function including jaundice, worms and / or other parasites inside the alimentary canal, typhoid, defective perspiratory mechanism, as well as burn injuries. Heredity also is a well identified causative factor.

Treatment Procedures for Leucoderma

You can find numerous treatment procedures available for the treatment of Leucoderma. These procedures consist of internal medications, depigmentation therapy, topical applications, radiation therapy, and photosensitivity therapy. All these treatment procedures have a certain level of effectiveness as well as their limitations.

Making use of colored creams along with tanning creams in order to conceal the patches on the skin is a more prevalent approach. This covers the patches however needs a considerable amount of time to apply. The drawback of using these creams is that they don’t prevent more spots from appearing.

Steroid creams are also very widely used. However, steroids impact the immune system of the body and weaken it. Hence, when any steroid cream is used on the skin, the antibodies within the skin are weakened and stop targeting the melanocytes and as a result of this, the melanin production resumes. It should be noted that this particular treatment solution does not really assure that the patches would not appear again. Furthermore, steroid creams cannot be used regularly. Using steroids has significant side effects, including permanent thinning of skin as well as the appearance of stretch marks on the area of application, which also happen to be permanent. Steroid creams additionally make the skin significantly less resistant against infections.
During UV therapy Leucoderma procedures, oral medications are combined along with long time exposure to ultra-violet rays in order to promote the melanocytes to produce melanin. Medications could be taken orally at home however in order to expose the patient to Ultra-violet light, they need to go through special UV ray sessions in a hospital. These sessions are time consuming in addition to the therapy being very costly and unaffordable for many patients. The side affects of Ultra-violet rays are extremely painful and range from sunburns to skin freckling.

Pertaining to patients with large scale de-pigmentation, it’s much easier to entirely de pigment the skin instead of attempting to pigment the white patches in the form of Leucoderma treatment. To put it differently, the white-colored patches are so big and also cover up so much area that it is much easier to completely whiten the skin. The amount of time needed to complete this kind of procedure could be about a year and it requires medication to be applied on the skin. Following the procedure, the skin turns extremely sensitive and needs to be protected against direct sunlight. This is recommended only in serious cases.

Surgical Procedures:

This kind of treatment includes surgical incision and removal of melanocytes. This gives the skin a more even tone. The surgical method to be used will depend on the type as well as location of the lesion. Therefore, selecting the correct cosmetic surgical procedure is essential for excellent aesthetic results.
Various surgical procedures include:

  • Therapeutic spot or regional dermabrasion
  • Miniature punch grafting
  • Ultra thin skin grafting
  • Tattooing
  • Suction blister grafting
  • Melanocyte culture and transplantation

Miniature punch grafting: In this procedure, multiple thin grafts with a diameter of 2 – 2.5 mm are taken from the donor site using special punches and then grafted onto the diseased area. After completing the grafts, the patient is advised to take Puva Sol or Puva. Re-pigmentation process occurs in around 3 to 6 months and provides good cosmetic results.

Ultra thin skin grafting:
In this procedure, ultra thin skin is grafted on the dermabraded or laser ablated area of stable vitiligo. Grafted skin falls off in about a week’s time but a cellular uptake of melanocytes takes place on the abraded skin and slowly starts pigmenting. It requires around 2 or 3 months for the pigmentation to fuse and also match the color of the surrounding skin.

Suction blister grafting: In this procedure, a prolonged suction is applied to the donor site, which raises a large bleb, and then a thin graft of skin is obtained. The skin is grafted onto the dermabraded recipient surface. This procedure is lengthy but offers excellent cosmetic results.

Melanocyte transplantation: In this procedure, the de pigmented recipient area is laser ablated or dermabraded and the melanocyte suspension is then applied to it. The site is covered with collagen and then immobilized. This procedure can cover larger areas and provides excellent cosmetic results.

Tattooing: During this procedure, artificial pigment is injected into the depigmented site. After choosing the pigment color that matches the color of the surrounding skin, pigment granules are implanted into the de-pigmented patch using either, electrical or manually driven needles. Although the patch of skin resembles the normal skin surrounding the site, it might permanently fade or obtain a bluish hue after a year or two which is clearly noticeable and might become unacceptable. Therefore, tattooing is generally not advisable unless the patch is located in an inoperable site.

Lumenis Aesthetic Laser and Light Based Solutions
Lumenis is a global leader in aesthetic lasers, medical and light based technology. Lumenis is committed to treating cosmetic and medical conditions with its advanced technological solutions. Lumenis offers a wide range of laser systems, which are particularly meant to fulfill your treatment objectives and meet your budget situation. Aesthetic laser and light treatments are by far the most versatile and flexible platform for cosmetic skin treatments. Lumenis is the one thing that caters to your cosmetic enhancement needs while still being affordable and less painful than most surgical alternatives.
Various Lumenis Products:

  • AcuPulse
  • Aluma
  • IPL Quantum
  • LightSheer
  • M22
  • UltraPulse Encore

Treatment Solutions You can expect with Lumenis Treatment Modules:
Hair Removal Treatment: The LightSheer Duet treatment provides high speed hair removal and helps get rid of unwanted hair from virtually any area of the body. LightSheer Diode Laser System provides a high power and both short and long pulses to safely and efficiently treat all types of skin including tanned skin. The revolutionary high speed LightSheer along with its significantly increased spot size and the innovative vacuum assist technology allows treatment of larger areas like the backs and legs. Treatments are comfortable and take around 15-20 minutes without having to use any treatment gels and topical anesthetics. This treatment is affordable, reduces treatment times by almost 75% and provides permanent hair removal. There aren’t many hair removal treatment solutions that offer the similar combination of product excellence as the Lightsheer duet treatment.
Leg Veins: Lumenis combines two extremely effective technologies to treat those visually unpleasant leg veins. It uses the adaptability of the Intense Pulsed Light at ranges of 515 to 1200 nm in order to reach smaller and superficial red vessels and high-energy pulsed laser light at a range of 1064 nm in order to treat deeper blue veins.
Skin Treatments: The IPL treatment enhances the appearance of photo aged skin, removes sun induced spots or freckles, redness caused due to broken capillaries, and nearly all benign brown pigments via a treatment procedure known as photo rejuvenation for the face and body. The skin treatments using photo rejuvenation cause fewer side effects and need barely any alteration in the normal routine of a patient. The IPL treatments are gentle, quick and non-invasive. Patients can notice remarkable results within a short period of time. By getting rid of the unpleasant looking age spots and broken capillaries, patients can achieve a radiant and younger looking skin.
Pigmented Lesions: The IPL technology used by Lumenis effectively treats pigmented lesions. Due to its versatility of filters, the IPL technology effectively treats hairy-pigmented lesions. During treatment, the wavelength is optimized in order to allow the energy to be absorbed by only the unwanted melanin and raising the temperature to cause the shattering of pigments. Soon after treatment, the melanin or unwanted pigment cells are thoroughly fragmented without causing any damage to the surrounding tissue.
Skin Resurfacing: The UltraPulse Encore is a laser designed to provide a precise, efficient and long-lasting process of skin rejuvenation. The wavelength of light, which is emitted by a CO2 laser, is absorbed very well by the water present in the skin. It eliminates wrinkles, lines, dark spots scars and other skin related problems layer by layer. This process additionally stimulates the formation of new underlying collagen in order to provide improved elasticity and support for the skin.
Tattoo Removal: Many attempts of tattoo removal offer less than desirable results. Here is where the Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser provides a solution. It delivers light of a specific wavelength in very short and extremely high peak energy pulses. This gets absorbed by the pigment in the tattoo, resulting in an acoustic shockwave. The shockwave created destroys the pigment particles, removing them from their encapsulation and breaking them to fragments that are small enough to be expelled from the body. The laser delivers high intensity light in pulses into the area of treatment. The tattoo ink selectively soaks up the light without causing any damage to the normal skin tissue around it. The ink is broken into small particles that can be safely removed from the body in the weeks following the treatment.
Lumenis Safety
Lumenis treatment modules deliver precise results with marginal discomfort and fewer side effects. There are many internally integrated safety features that make the Lumenis treatment modules extremely safe. Every module is designed along strict safety lines and regulations.

Many individuals experience mild acne during some point in their lives. Usually, the acne clears up after some time. However, some people experience serious trouble with acne, which needs more than just over the counter medications. There are various treatments available in the market for treating severe acne, however one treatment stands out amongst them all. The treatment which stands out and is rapidly gaining popularity is the laser treatment for acne. Mentioned below are some procedures for treating acne as well as laser treatment for acne.
Dermabrasion:
This is an aesthetic medical procedure wherein the skin’s surface is removed by abrasion or sanding. This procedure is used to get rid of sun damaged skin as well as to remove or reduce dark spots and scars on the skin. This procedure is extremely painful and normally requires a general anaesthetic. Following the procedure, the skin turns very red and it requires several months for the skin to heal. Dermabrasion is effective in scar removal if the scar is raised above the surrounding skin and is less helpful with sunken scars.
During the past, dermabrasion was performed by using a sterilized electric sander. At present, it has become common to use laser dermabrasion with the help of CO2 and Er:YAG laser. Sometimes, a combination of both these lasers is used for the treatment of acne scars. The indications for the use of CO2 laser treatment would include previous non erythematous, burn scars, non-proliferative hypertrophic scars and atrophic acne scars. Laser dermabrasion is easy to control, easy to gauge, and is almost bloodless in comparison to classic dermabrasion.
Red and Blue Light:
Light exposure has been used as a short term acne treatment. Lately, visible light (deep penetrating light treatment or phototherapy) has been effectively employed in order to treat mild and moderate acne; with the use of intense violet light of 405-420 nm which is generated by dichroic bulbs, purpose built fluorescent lighting, and lasers or LED’s. When used twice a week, this treatment has shown to lessen the number of acne lesions by almost 64% and has proven even more effective when used on a daily basis. The mechanism appears to be that a porphyrin which is produced within P. acnes produces free radicals whenever irradiated by the 420 nm and shorter wavelengths of light. When applied over a period of time, these free radicals eventually kill the bacteria. As porphyrins are not present in the skin and there is no UV light employed, it seems to be safe and has been approved by the FDA.
It appears that this treatment functions even better when used in a combination with violet and red visible light. This leads to a 76% decrease of lesions following three months treatment on a daily basis. For 80% of the patients, the overall clearance was almost similar or even superior to Benzoyl peroxide. Unlike a majority of other treatments, this treatment causes a few side effects and development of bacterial resistance to the treatment is quite unlikely. Post treatment, the clearance achieved is long term as compared to any oral or topical antibiotic treatments.
Laser Treatment:
Laser treatment or laser surgery has been used for a very long time to help in reducing scars that have been caused due to acne. However, lasers have been researched for the prevention of acne formation. The lasers are made use of in order to produce some of the effects mentioned below:

  • To burn the sebaceous gland that produces the excess oil
  • To burn the follicle sac from which the hair grows
  • To induce the formation of oxygen in the bacteria

As intense pulsed light treatments and lasers result in thermal damage to skin, it raises concerns about the lasers or intense pulsed light therapies for acne, causing hyper pigmented spots or perhaps long term skin dryness.

Generally, acne can be cured with the help of over-the-counter medications. However, if the acne is severe and does not improve with over the counter creams and medications, it is always advisable to consult a dermatologist for the right treatment procedure.


The FDA has approved the use of aesthetic lasers for treating acne. However, efficiency studies have made use of very small sample sizes for a period of six months or less, and have revealed contradictory results. Since, laser treatment is relatively new, the protocols remain subject to revision and experimentation with the treatments being quite expensive. Furthermore, some smooth beam laser devices were recalled as a result of coolant failure and caused painful burn injuries to patients.
Laser acne treatment works perfectly and ensures a boost to the confidence of individuals who are looking for a treatment that would surely treat their acne. Laser acne treatment enjoys an extremely high success rate and is rapidly gaining popularity as an option for severe acne treatment.